Home Library Special Series Reports

IWR reports

Special Series

Navigation Economic Technologies (NETS) Program

Series No

Report No

Title/Description/Authors (listed alphabetically)

NTIS/Vol/Pg

Available Download

2003-NET-R-01

03-NETS-R-01 

Recent Trends in Output, Industrial Organization, and the Willingness to Pay in the United States Inland Waterborne Commerical Transportation Industry
Nets activity Recent Trends in Output, Industrial Organization, and the Willingness to Pay in the United States Inland Waterborne Commerical Transportation Industry. An analysis of publicly available historic data regarding the domestic inland water transportation industry reveals a national industry best characterized by: (1) historically decreasing rates of growth in total industry output culminating in the current virtual stagnation of long term industry output levels; (2) continuing intra-industry, horizontal integration of inland water transportation providers leading to an increased concentration of industry market power into a handful of national carriers; and (3) slowly decreasing real levels of marginal willingness to pay for water transportation as evidenced by the declining real revenues per unit of output publicly reported by inland water transportation firms. Together, these three trends have profound implications for the Corps of Engineers management of the existing inland navigation system infrastructure and raise questions regarding the wisdom of planning for and implementing costly carrying capacity expanding improvements in the near future. In the current Federal fiscal environment with many competing demands for scarce Federal budget resources, these three trends also suggest a rationalization of the performance of underutilized segments of the existing infrastructure in the context of the net current national economic benefits they contribute.
Donald C. Sweeney , Ph.D.
Jul 2003

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 28

2003-NET-R-01     

Download
( pdf, 1.9 MB )  

2004-NET-P-01

04-NETS-P-01 

(A) Study of Short-Run Movements in Grain on the Inland Waterway System
NETS activity A Study of Short-Run Movements in Grain on the Inland Waterway System
Mark A. Thoma ; Wesley W. Wilson
Jul 2004

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 26

2004-NET-P-01     

Download
( pdf, 422 KB )  

2004-NET-P-02

04-NETS-P-02 

Harborsym
NETS activity Harborsym: A Data Driven Monte Carlo Simulation Model of Vessel Movement in Harbors
Shana Heisey ; Keith Hofseth ; Richard M Males ; David A Moser , PhD. ; Cory Rogers
Jul 2004

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 20

2004-NET-P-02     

Download
( pdf, 733 KB )  

2004-NET-P-03

04-NETS-P-03 

Understanding Grain Movements for Demand Estimation
NETS activity Understanding Grain Movements for Demand Estimation: The Columbia-Snake River System in Washington State
Dr. Ken Casavant ; Dr. Eric Jessup
Jul 2004

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 24

2004-NET-P-03     

Download
( pdf, 395 KB )  

2004-NET-P-04

04-NETS-P-04 

Seasonality and Geographic Trends for Grain Shipment on the Upper Mississippi River and Illinois Waterway
NETS activity Seasonality and Geographic Trends for Grain Shipment on the Upper Mississippi River and Illinois Waterway
Kenneth D. Boyer ; Wesley W. Wilson
Jul 2004

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 24

2004-NET-P-04     

Download
( pdf, 478 KB )  

2004-NET-P-05

04-NETS-P-05 

Long-Term Forecasting of World Grain Trade and U.S. Gulf Exports
NETS activity Long-Term Forecasting of World Grain Trade and U.S. Gulf Exports: Submitted to the Transportation Research Board for Publication in Transportation Research Record
Bruce Dahl ; Won Koo ; Richard Taylor ; William Wilson
Jul 2004

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 28

2004-NET-P-05     

Download
( pdf, 491 KB )  

2004-NET-P-06

04-NETS-P-06 

Spatial Modeling in Transportation
NETS activity Spatial Modeling in Transportation: Congestion and Mode Choice
Simon P. Anderson ; Wesley W. Wilson
Nov 2004

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 34

2004-NET-P-06     

Download
( pdf, 1.4 MB )  

2004-NET-P-07

04-NETS-P-07 

Transportation Demand for Grain Shipment
NETS activity Transportation Demand for Grain Shipment: A Revealed and Stated Preference Approach
Kenneth Train ; Wesley W. Wilson
Nov 2004

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 20

2004-NET-P-07     

Download
( pdf, 418 KB )  

2004-NET-P-08

04-NETS-P-08 

Long-Term Forecasting of World Grain Trade and US Gulf Exports
NETS activity Long-Term Forecasting of World Grain Trade and US Gulf Exports
Bruce Dahl ; Won Koo ; Richard Taylor ; William Wilson
Nov 2004

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 28

2004-NET-P-08     

Download
( pdf, 481 KB )  

2004-NET-R-01

04-NETS-R-01 

(A) Discrete Event Simulation Model of a Congested Segment of the Upper Mississippi River Inland Navigation System
NETS activity A Discrete Event Simulation Model of a Congested Segment of the Upper Mississippi River Inland Navigation System
Donald C. Sweeney , Ph.D.
Nov 2004

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 92

2004-NET-R-01     

Download
( pdf, 1.8 MB )  

2004-NET-R-02

04-NETS-R-02 

Shippers' Responses to Changes in Transportation Rates and Times
NETS activity Shippers' Responses to Changes in Transportation Rates and Times: The Mid-American Grain Study
Kenneth Train ; Wesley W. Wilson
Nov 2004

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 98

2004-NET-R-02     

Download
( pdf, 681 KB )  

2005-NET-P-01

05-NETS-P-01 

(A) Model of Spatial Market Areas and Transportation Demand
NETS activity A Model of Spatial Market Areas and Transportation Demand
Kevin E. Henrickson ; Wesley W. Wilson
Jan 2005

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 24

2005-NET-P-01     

Download
( pdf, 1.3 MB )  

2005-NET-P-02

05-NETS-P-02 

2005 Depaepe-Willems Contest Submission
NETS activity 2005 Depaepe-Willems Contest Submission: Determining Economic Efficiency in Harbors
Shana Heisey
Jul 2005

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 26

2005-NET-P-02     

Download
( pdf, 1.1 MB )  

2005-NET-P-03

05-NETS-P-03 

Patterns in Geographic Elasticity Estimates of Barge Demand on the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers
NETS activity Patterns in Geographic Elasticity Estimates of Barge Demand on the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers. This paper investigates patterns in the demand for barge transportation along the inland waterway system. Non-parametric techniques including both rolling regression and locally weighted regressions are used to visually analyze the pattern of elasticity estimates along the river at the pool level. The results of these non-parametric approaches visually indicate that barge demand elasticity may be more elastic on both the southern and northern reaches of the river, while being more inelastic toward the center of the waterway system. Based on the non-parametric analysis, higher order elasticity terms are used to parametrically investigate the pattern of elasticity along the inland waterway system. Using the parametric approach, the same patterns of elasticity arise wherein demands are relatively more elastic on the northern and southern ends of the waterway system and relatively less elastic in the center.
Kevin E. Henrickson ; Wesley W. Wilson
Jul 2005

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 28

2005-NET-P-03     

Download
( pdf, 683 KB )  

2005-NET-P-04

05-NETS-P-04 

Market Power in Transportation
NETS activity Market Power in Transportation: Spatial Equilibrium and Welfare under Cournot Competition
Simon P. Anderson ; Wesley W. Wilson
Sep 2005

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 48

2005-NET-P-04     

Download
( pdf, 643 KB )  

2005-NET-P-05

05-NETS-P-05 

Transportation Market Equilibrium
NETS activity Transportation Market Equilibrium: A Theoretical Approach
Simon P. Anderson ; Wesley W. Wilson
Sep 2005

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 44

2005-NET-P-05     

Download
( pdf, 567 KB )  

2005-NET-P-06

05-NETS-P-06 

HSAM
NETS activity HSAM: An Interactive Immersive Animation Deep-Draft Maritime Traffic Simulations
Shana Heisey ; Keith Hofseth ; Richard M Males ; Cory Rogers ; William K. Woelbeling
Oct 2005

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 16

2005-NET-P-06     

Download
( pdf, 691 KB )  

2005-NET-P-07

05-NETS-P-07 

Market Power in Transportation
NETS activity Market Power in Transportation: Spatial Equilibrium and Welfare under Bertrand Competition
Simon P. Anderson ; Wesley W. Wilson
Dec 2005

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 30

2005-NET-P-07     

Download
( pdf, 582 KB )  

2005-NET-P-08

05-NETS-P-08 

Econometric Analysis of Stated-Preference Experiments Constructed from Revealed-Preference Choices
NETS activity Econometric Analysis of Stated-Preference Experiments Constructed from Revealed-Preference Choices
Kenneth Train ; Wesley W. Wilson
Dec 2005

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 30

2005-NET-P-08     

Download
( pdf, 1.3 MB )  

2005-NET-R-01

05-NETS-R-01 

(A) Survey of the Freight Transportation Demand Literature and A Comparison of Elasticity Estimates
NETS activity A Survey of the Freight Transportation Demand Literature and A Comparison of Elasticity Estimates
Chris Clark ; Helen Tammela Naughton ; Bruce Proulx ; Paul Thoma
Jan 2005

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 56

2005-NET-R-01     

Download
( pdf, 528 KB )  

2005-NET-R-02

05-NETS-R-02 

Shipper and Carrier Response to the September-October 2003 Greenup Main Lock Closure
NETS activity Shipper and Carrier Response to the September-October 2003 Greenup Main Lock Closure
The Planning Center of Expertise for Inland Navigation, Huntington District
Feb 2005

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 74

2005-NET-R-02     

Download
( pdf, 1.1 MB )  

2005-NET-R-03

05-NETS-R-03 

Estimation of Demands at the Pool Level
NETS activity Estimation of Demands at the Pool Level
Kenneth D. Boyer ; Wesley W. Wilson
Mar 2005

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 66

2005-NET-R-03     

Download
( pdf, 1.3 MB )  

2005-NET-R-04

05-NETS-R-04 

Columbia/Snake River Transportation Study
The purpose of the Navigation Economic Technologies (NETS) research program is to develop a standardized and defensible suite of economic tools for navigation improvement evaluation. NETS addresses specific navigation economic evaluation and modeling issues that have been raised inside and outside the Corps and is responsive to our commitment to develop and use peer-reviewed tools, techniques and procedures as expressed in the Civil Works strategic plan. The new tools and techniques developed by the NETS research program are to be based on 1) reviews of economic theory, 2) current practices across the Corps (and elsewhere), 3) data needs and availability, and 4) peer recommendations.
Dr. Ken Casavant ; Dr. Eric Jessup
May 2005

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 120

2005-NET-R-04     

Download
( pdf, 874 KB )  

2005-NET-R-06

05-NETS-R-06 

Market Adjustments Over Transportation Networks
NETS activity Market Adjustments Over Transportation Networks: A Time Series Analysis of Grain Movements on the Mississippi Inland Waterway System
Mark A. Thoma ; Wesley W. Wilson
Aug 2005

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 84

2005-NET-R-06     

Download
( pdf, 626 KB )  

2005-NET-R-07

05-NETS-R-07 

Event Study of the August 2004 McAlpine Lock Closure
NETS activity Event Study of the August 2004 McAlpine Lock Closure

Sep 2005

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 156

2005-NET-R-07     

Download
( pdf, 3.3 MB )  

2005-NET-R-08

05-NETS-R-08 

McAlpine Lock Closure in August 2004
NETS activity McAlpine Lock Closure in August 2004: Shipper and Carrier Response Results of Surveys
Planning Center of Expertise for Inland Navigation
Sep 2005

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 50

2005-NET-R-08     

Download
( pdf, 529 KB )  

2005-NET-R-09

05-NETS-R-09 

Spatial Competition, Supply, and Transportation Demand
NETS activity Spatial Competition, Supply, and Transportation Demand: A Study of Elevator Competition and Waterway Demands with Geographically Varying Elasticities and Spatial Autocorrelation
Kevin E. Henrickson
Sep 2005

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 56

2005-NET-R-09     

Download
( pdf, 806 KB )  

2005-NET-R-10

05-NETS-R-10 

System-Wide Lock Reliability Analysis Phase 0
NETS activity System-Wide Lock Reliability Analysis Phase 0: Proof of Concept
Planning Center of Expertise for Inland Navigation
Sep 2005

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 60

2005-NET-R-10     

Download
( pdf, 3.4 MB )  

2005-NET-R-11

05-NETS-R-11 

Tradeable Permit Markets for Locks on Inland Waterways
NETS activity Tradeable Permit Markets for Locks on Inland Waterways
Joesph P. Cook ; Charles R. Plott
Oct 2005

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 54

2005-NET-R-11     

Download
( pdf, 628 KB )  

2005-NET-R-13

05-NETS-R-13 

Vessel, Firm, and Lock Efficiency Measures in Lock Performance
NETS activity Vessel, Firm, and Lock Efficiency Measures in Lock Performance
Wesley W. Wilson
Nov 2005

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 22

2005-NET-R-13     

Download
( pdf, 457 KB )  

2005-NETS-R-14

05-NETS-R-14 

Determining System Capacity to Accommodate Grain Flows By Rail to the Mississippi River at St. Louis
NETS Report: Determining System Capacity to Accommodate Grain Flows by Rail to the Mississippi River at St. Louis
The Louis Berger Group
Nov 2005

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 18

2005-NETS-R-14     

Download
( pdf, 661 KB )  

2006-NET-P-01

06-NETS-P-01 

Visualization for Navigation Simulation Models - Why, What, and How
NETS HarborSym Paper
Shana Heisey ; Keith Hofseth ; Richard M Males ; Cory Rogers
Jul 2006

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 12

2006-NET-P-01     

Download
( pdf, 580 KB )  

2006-NET-P-02

06-NETS-P-02 

Development of Commodity Driven Vessel Movements for Economic Analysis of Port Improvements
NETS HarborSym paper
Shana Heisey ; Keith Hofseth ; Richard M Males ; Cory Rogers
Jul 2006

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 22

2006-NET-P-02     

Download
( pdf, 1.1 MB )  

2006-NET-P-03

06-NETS-P-03 

(The) Navigation Economics Technology Research Program
The purpose of the Navigation Economic Technologies (NETS) research program is to develop a standardized and defensible suite of economic tools for navigation improvement evaluation. NETS addresses specific navigation economic evaluation and modeling issues that have been raised inside and outside the Corps and is responsive to our commitment to develop and use peer-reviewed tools, techniques and procedures as expressed in the Civil Works strategic plan. The new tools and techniques developed by the NETS research program are to be based on 1) reviews of economic theory, 2) current practices across the Corps (and elsewhere), 3) data needs and availability, and 4) peer recommendations.
Keith Hofseth
Jul 2006

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 14

2006-NET-P-03     

Download
( pdf, 384 KB )  

2006-NET-R-01

06-NETS-R-01 

New Measures of Port Efficiency Using International Trade Data
NETS activity New Measures of Port Efficiency Using International Trade Data
Bruce A. Blonigen ; Wesley W. Wilson
Feb 2006

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 40

2006-NET-R-01     

Download
( pdf, 502 KB )  

2006-NET-R-03

06-NETS-R-03 

Transportation Demands in the Columbia-Snake River Basin
NETS activity Transportation Demands in the Columbia-Snake River Basin
Kenneth Train ; Wesley W. Wilson
Mar 2006

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 42

2006-NET-R-03     

Download
( pdf, 715 KB )  

2006-NET-R-04

06-NETS-R-04 

Analysis of Towboat Operating Areas
NETS activity Analysis of Towboat operating Areas.The Upper Mississippi River (UMR), which has 29 lock and dam facilities along it, carries a large fraction of the cargo moving on the U.S. inland waterways. It periodically experiences severe congestion (particularly at the lower UMR locks) due to seasonal variations in system use as well as to the relatively short (600 ft) lock chambers provided at most locks. Many towboats now exceed the 600 ft length and require relatively slow double cut lockages. According to Sweeney (2004) and the UMSL Center for Transportation Studies (CTS) (2005), the UMR seasonality is evident because the operating conditions become extremely difficult or impossible in winter due to the freezing of the river and demand (e.g., grains and coal shipments) is seasonal as well. Many towboats migrate to the UMR during the early spring and out of it in late fall; cyclic influx and efflux of towboats to the UMR has been observed in the previous studies (1-3). The objective of this analysis is to understand characteristics of the UMR towboat operation and provide practical information about towboat use in the study area for the UMR navigation system simulation (NaSS) model, which is being developed by the U.S. Army Corpsof Engineers. Some obvious questions that provide the major impetus for this analysis are listed below.
Min Wook Kang ; Paul Schonfeld
Mar 2006

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 46

2006-NET-R-04     

Download
( pdf, 1.0 MB )  

2006-NET-R-05

06-NETS-R-05 

Hannibal Locks and Dam: Causes and Consequences of Lock Closures 21 October to 16 November 2005
NETS activity Event Studies: Hannibal Locks and Dam
Planning Center of Expertise for Inland Navigation
May 2006

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 48

2006-NET-R-05     

Download
( pdf, 1.46 MB )  

2006-NET-R-06

06-NETS-R-06 

Navigation System Simulation (NaSS) Design Document
NETS activity Navigation System Simulation Design
Richard M Males
July 2006

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 86

2006-NET-R-06     

Download
( pdf, 769 KB )  

2006-NET-R-07

06-NETS-R-07 

Shipper and Carrier Response to the July-August 2004 Lock 27 Closure
NETS activity Lock 27
Planning Center of Expertise for Inland Navigation
Oct 2006

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 44

2006-NET-R-07     

Download
( pdf, 483 KB )  

2006-NET-R-08

06-NETS-R-08 

Shipper and Carrier Response to the October-December 2005 and January-February 2006 Lock 27 Closures
NETS activity Lock 27
Planning Center of Expertise for Inland Navigation
Oct 2006

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 52

2006-NET-R-08     

Download
( pdf, 723 KB )  

2006-NET-R-09

06-NETS-R-09 

Analysis of Towboat Operating Areas: Addendum Presenting Findings from Waterborne Commerce Statistics Center Data
NETS activity Towboat Operating Areas
Mark Lisney
Oct 2006

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 22

2006-NET-R-09     

Download
( pdf, 453 KB )  

2006-NET-R-10

06-NETS-R-10 

Genetic Algorithms for Selecting and Scheduling Waterway Projects Phase 2 Final Report
NETS Navigation System Simulation Model report
Paul Schonfeld ; Shiaaulir Wang
Nov 2006

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 36

2006-NET-R-10     

Download
( pdf, 601 KB )  

2006-NET-R-11

06-NETS-R-11 

Port Efficiency and Trade Flows
NETS Port Development, Internal Transport Systems and International Trade Report. Growing international trade and increasing congestion focus attention on trade facilitation. Ocean ports are a central and necessary component in facilitating trade. Yet, there is only limited comprehensive information available on the efficiency of ports, much less evidence of the effect of port efficiency on trade. We develop and apply a straightforward approach to estimate port efficiency. The approach uses detailed data on U.S. imports and associated import costs, yielding estimates across ports, products, and time. These measures are incorporated into a gravity trade model where we estimate that improved port efficiency significantly increases trade volumes.
Bruce A. Blonigen ; Wesley W. Wilson
Nov 2006

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 44

2006-NET-R-11     

Download
( pdf, 479 KB )  

2006-NET-R-12

06-NETS-R-12 

Longer-Term Forecasting of Commodity Flows on the Mississippi River: Application to Grains and World Trade
NETS report
Bruce Dahl ; Eric DeVuyst ; Won Koo ; Richard Taylor ; William Wilson
Dec 2006

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 286

2006-NET-R-12     

Download
( pdf, 3.1 MB )  

2007-NET-P-03

07-NETS-P-03 

Monte Carlo Analysis of SP-off-RP Data
NETS Report: Modeling Preferences for Upper Mississippi Grain Movements: The Mid-American Grain Study

Nov 2007

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 22

2007-NET-P-03     

Download
( pdf, 834 KB )  

2007-NET-R-01

07-NETS-R-01 

Transportation Demands for the Movement of Non-Agricultural Commodities Pertinent to the Upper Mississippi and Illinois River Basin
NETS Report: Modeling Preferences for Upper Mississippi Grain Movements: The Mid-American Grain Study
Kenneth Train ; Wesley W. Wilson
May 2007

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 96

2007-NET-R-01     

Download
( pdf, 2.6 MB )  

2007-NET-R-02

07-NETS-R-02 

Transportation Demand For Agricultural Products in the Upper Mississippi and Illinois River Basin
NETS Report: Modeling Preferences for Upper Mississippi Grain Movements: The Mid-American Grain Study

May 2007

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 124

2007-NET-R-02     

Download
( pdf, 1.5 MB )  

2008-NET-R-01

08-NETS-R-01 

Ohio River Transportation Needs Survey
NETS: Ohio River Basin Shipper Response Survey

Jan 2008

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 68

2008-NET-R-01     

Download
( pdf, 2.2MB )  

2009-NET-R-01

09-NETS-R-01 

Shipper and Carrier Response to the June-July 2008 Upper Mississippi River Flood Emergency Closure of Locks 12-25
Mississippi River Locks 12-25 (UMR 556 to 241) are critical to navigation on the Upper Mississippi River. In 2007 Lock 12 passed about 18 million tons, and Lock 25 passed about 30 million tons. Between June 13 and July 5, 2008, these locks were sequentially closed to navigation traffic for an unscheduled shutdown of the river due to flooding. A survey of the shippers and carriers affected by the emergency lock closures was conducted between 14 January and 6 March for the purpose of discerning industry reactions to the closures and the associated costs.
Sharryn Jackson
Jul 2009

NTIS: 

Volume: 1
Total Volumes: 1

Pages: 44

2009-NET-R-01     

Download
( pdf, 546 KB )  

 
Building Strong
iSaluteURL USACEURL ArmyURL YouTubeURL BlogURL FacebookURL FlickrURL TwitterURL